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2007年GMAT考试最新逻辑推理仿真试题训练十六

2009-07-17 16:32

  TEST 9

  30 Minutes 20 Questions

  Questions 1-2 are based on the following.

  Companies O and P each have the same number of employees who work the same number of hours per week. According to records maintained by each company, the employees of Company O had fewer job-related accidents last year than did the employees of Company P. Therefore, employees of Company O are less likely to have job-related accidents than are employees of Company P.

  1.Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

 。ˋ) Company P manufactures products that are more hazardous for workers to produce than does Company O.

 。˙) Company P holds more safety inspections than does Company O.

 。–) Company P maintains a more modern infirmary than does Company O.

 。―) Company O paid more for new job-related medical claims than did Company P.(A)

 。‥) Company P provides more types of health-care benefits than does Company O.

  2.Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

 。ˋ) The employees of Company P lost more time at work due to job-related accidents than did the employees of Company O.

 。˙) Company P considered more types of accidents to be job-related than did Company O.

 。–) The employees of Company P were sick more often than were the employees of Company O.

 。―) Several employees of Company O each had more than one job-related accident.(B)

 。‥) The majority of job-related accidents at Company O involved a single machine.

  3.In comparison to the standard typewriter keyboard, the EFCO keyboard, which places the most-used keys nearest the typist's strongest fingers, allows faster typing and results in less fatigue, Therefore, replacement of standard keyboards with the EFCO keyboard will result in an immediate reduction of typing costs.Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion drawn above?

 。ˋ) People who use both standard and EFCO keyboards report greater difficulty in the transition from the EFCO keyboard to the standard keyboard than in the transition from the standard keyboard to the EFCO keyboard.

 。˙) EFCO keyboards are no more expensive to manufacture than are standard keyboards and require less frequent repair than do standard keyboards.

 。–) The number of businesses and government agencies that use EFCO keyboards is increasing each year.

 。―) The more training and experience an employee has had with the standard keyboard, the more costly it is to train that employee to use the EFCO keyboard.

 。‥) Novice typists can learn to use the EFCO keyboard in about the same amount of time it takes them to learn to use the standard keyboard.

  Questions 4-5 are based on the following.

  Half of the subjects in an experiment—the experimental group—consumed large quantities of a popular artificial sweetener. Afterward, this group showed lower cognitive abilities than did the other half of the subjects—the control group—who did not consume the sweetener. The detrimental effects were attributed to an amino acid that is one of the sweetener's principal constituents.

  4.Which of the following, if true, would best support the conclusion that some ingredient of the sweetener was responsible for the experimental results?

 。ˋ) Most consumers of the sweetener do not consume as much of it as the experimental group members did.

 。˙) The amino acid referred to in the conclusion is a component of all proteins, some of which must be consumed for adequate nutrition.

 。–) The quantity of the sweetener consumed by individuals in the experimental group is considered safe by federal food regulators.

 。―) The two groups of subjects were evenly matched with regard to cognitive abilities prior to the experiment.(D)

 。‥) A second experiment in which subjects consumed large quantities of the sweetener lacked a control group of subjects who were not given the sweetener.

  5.Which of the following, if true, would best help explain how the sweetener might produce the observed effect?

 。ˋ) The government's analysis of the artificial sweetener determined that it was sold in relatively pure form.

 。˙) A high level of the amino acid in the blood inhibits the synthesis of a substance required for normal brain functioning.

 。–) Because the sweetener is used primarily as a food additive, adverse reactions to it are rarely noticed by consumers.

 。―) The amino acid that is a constituent of the sweetener is also sold separately as a dietary supplement.(B)

 。‥) Subjects in the experiment did not know whether they were consuming the sweetener or a second, harmless substance.

  6.Adult female rats who have never before encountered rat pups will start to show maternal behaviors after being confined with a pup for about seven days. This period can be considerably shortened by disabling the female's sense of smell or by removing the scent-producing glands of the pup.Which of the following hypotheses best explains the contrast described above?

 。ˋ) The sense of smell in adult female rats is more acute than that in rat pups.

 。˙) The amount of scent produced by rat pups increases when they are in the presence of a female rat that did not bear them.

 。–) Female rats that have given birth are more affected by olfactory cues than are female rats that have never given birth.

 。―) A female rat that has given birth shows maternal behavior toward rat pups that she did not bear more quickly than does a female rat that has never given birth.(E)

 。‥) The development of a female rat's maternal interest in a rat pup that she did not bear is inhibited by the odor of the pup.

  7.The interview is an essential part of a successful hiring program because, with it, job applicants who have personalities that are unsuited to the requirements of the job will be eliminated from consideration.The argument above logically depends on which of the following assumptions?

 。ˋ) A hiring program will be successful if it includes interviews.

 。˙) The interview is a more important part of a successful hiring program than is the development of a job description.

 。–) Interviewers can accurately identify applicants whose personalities are unsuited to the requirements of the job.

 。―) The only purpose of an interview is to evaluate whether job applicants' personalities are suited to the requirements of the job.(C)

 。‥) The fit of job applicants' personalities to the requirements of the job was once the most important factor in making hiring decisions.

  8.An overly centralized economy, not the changes in the climate, is responsible for the poor agricultural production in Country X since its new government came to power. Neighboring Country Y has experienced the same climatic conditions, but while agricultural production has been falling in Country X, it has been rising in Country Y.Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

 。ˋ) Industrial production also is declining in Country X.

 。˙) Whereas Country Y is landlocked, Country X has a major seaport.

 。–) Both Country X and Country Y have been experiencing drought conditions.

 。―) The crops that have always been grown in Country X are different from those that have always been grown in Country Y.(D)

 。‥) Country X's new government instituted a centralized economy with the intention of ensuring an equitable distribution of goods.

  9.Useful protein drugs, such as insulin, must still be administered by the cumbersome procedure of injection under the skin. If proteins are taken orally, they are digested and cannot reach their target cells. Certain nonprotein drugs, however, contain chemical bonds that are not broken down by the digestive system. They can, thus, be taken orally.The statements above most strongly support a claim that a research procedure that successfully accomplishes which of the following would be beneficial to users of protein drugs?

 。ˋ) Coating insulin with compounds that are broken down by target cells, but whose chemical bonds are resistant to digestion

 。˙) Converting into protein compounds, by procedures that work in the laboratory, the nonprotein drugs that resist digestion

 。–) Removing permanently from the digestive system any substances that digest proteins

 。―) Determining, in a systematic way, what enzymes and bacteria are present in the normal digestive system and whether they tend to be broken down within the body(A)

 。‥) Determining the amount of time each nonprotein drug takes to reach its target cells

  10.Country Y uses its scarce foreign-exchange reserves to buy scrap iron for recycling into steel. Although the steel thus produced earns more foreign exchange than it costs, that policy is foolish. Country Y's own territory has vast deposits of iron ore, which can be mined with minimal expenditure of foreign exchange.Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for Country Y's policy of buying scrap iron abroad?

 。ˋ) The price of scrap iron on international markets rose significantly in 1987.

 。˙) Country Y's foreign-exchange reserves dropped significantly in 1987.

 。–) There is virtually no difference in quality between steel produced from scrap iron and that produced from iron ore.

 。―) Scrap iron is now used in the production of roughly half the steel used in the world today, and experts predict that scrap iron will be used even more extensively in the future.(E)

 。‥) Furnaces that process scrap iron can be built and operated in Country Y with substantially less foreign exchange than can furnaces that process iron ore.

  11.Last year the rate of inflation was 1.2 percent, but for the current year it has been 4 percent. We can conclude that inflation is on an upward trend and the rate will be still higher next year.Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above?

 。ˋ) The inflation figures were computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than all of the available data.

 。˙) Last year a dip in oil prices brought inflation temporarily below its recent stable annual level of 4 percent.

 。–) Increases in the pay of some workers are tied to the level of inflation, and at an inflation rate of 4 percent or above, these pay raises constitute a force causing further inflation.

 。―) The 1.2 percent rate of inflation last year represented a ten-year low.(B)

 。‥) Government intervention cannot affect the rate of inflation to any significant degree.

  12.Because no employee wants to be associated with bad news in the eyes of a superior, information about serious problems at lower levels is progressively softened and distorted as it goes up each step in the management hierarchy. The chief executive is, therefore, less well informed about problems at lower levels than are his or her subordinates at those levels.The conclusion drawn above is based on the assumption that

 。ˋ) problems should be solved at the level in the management hierarchy at which they occur

 。˙) employees should be rewarded for accurately reporting problems to their superiors

 。–) problem-solving ability is more important at higher levels than it is at lower levels of the management hierarchy

 。―) chief executives obtain information about problems at lower levels from no source other than their subordinates(D)

 。‥) some employees are more concerned about truth than about the way they are perceived by their superiors

  13.In the United States in 1986, the average rate of violent crime in states with strict gun-control laws was 645 crimes per 100,000 persons—about 50 percent higher than the average rate in the eleven states where strict gun-control laws have never been passed. Thus one way to reduce violent crime is to repeal strict gun control laws.Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

 。ˋ) The annual rate of violent crime in states with strict gun-control laws has decreased since the passage of those laws.

 。˙) In states with strict gun-control laws, few individuals are prosecuted for violating such laws.

 。–) In states without strict gun-control laws, many individuals have had no formal training in the use of firearms.

 。―) The annual rate of nonviolent crime is lower in states with strict gun-control laws than in states without such laws.(A)

 。‥) Less than half of the individuals who reside in states without strict gun-control laws own a gun.

  14.Corporate officers and directors commonly buy and sell, for their own portfolios, stock in their own corporations. Generally, when the ratio of such inside sales to inside purchases falls below 2 to 1 for a given stock, a rise in stock prices is imminent. In recent days, while the price of MEGA Corporation stock has been falling, the corporation's officers and directors have bought up to nine times as much of it as they have sold.The facts above best support which of the following predictions?

 。ˋ) The imbalance between inside purchases and inside sales of MEGA stock will grow even further.

 。˙) Inside purchases of MEGA stock are about to cease abruptly.

 。–) The price of MEGA stock will soon begin to go up.

 。―) The price of MEGA stock will continue to drop, but less rapidly.(C)

 。‥) The majority of MEGA stock will soon be owned by MEGA's own officers and directors.

  15.The proposal to hire ten new police officers in Middletown is quite foolish. There is sufficient funding to pay the salaries of the new officers, but not the salaries of additional court and prison employees to process the increased caseload of arrests and convictions that new officers usually generate.Which of the following, if true, will most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above?

 。ˋ) Studies have shown that an increase in a city's police force does not necessarily reduce crime.

 。˙) When one major city increased its police force by 19 percent last year, there were 40 percent more arrests and 13 percent more convictions.

 。–) If funding for the new police officers' salaries is approved, support for other city services will have to be reduced during the next fiscal year.

 。―) In most United States cities, not all arrests result in convictions, and not all convictions result in prison terms.(E)

 。‥) Middletown's ratio of police officers to citizens has reached a level at which an increase in the number of officers will have a deterrent effect on crime.

  16.A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

 。ˋ) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not.

 。˙) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.

 。–) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.

 。―) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report.(B)

 。‥) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report.

  17.There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures—up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand between different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.To support a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be most important to establish which of the following?

 。ˋ) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.

 。˙) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themselves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.

 。–) There are several categories of surgical procedure (other than hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies) that are often performed unnecessarily.

 。―) For certain surgical procedures, it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternative treatment would have succeeded.(B)

 。‥) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

  18.  Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

 。ˋ) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

 。˙) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

 。–) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

 。―) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.(A)

 。‥) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

  19.In 1987 sinusitis was the most common chronic medical condition in the United States, followed by arthritis and high blood pressure, in that order.The incidence rates for both arthritis and high blood pressure increase with age, but the incidence rate for sinusitis is the same for people of all ages.The average age of the United States population will increase between 1987 and 2000.Which of the following conclusions can be most properly drawn about chronic medical conditions in the United States from the information given above?

 。ˋ) Sinusitis will be more common than either arthritis or high blood pressure in 2000.

 。˙) Arthritis will be the most common chronic medical condition in 2000.

 。–) The average age of people suffering from sinusitis will increase between 1987 and 2000.

 。―) Fewer people will suffer from sinusitis in 2000 than suffered from it in 1987.(C)

 。‥) A majority of the population will suffer from at least one of the medical conditions mentioned above by the year 2000.

  20.Parasitic wasps lay their eggs directly into the eggs of various host insects in exactly the right numbers for any suitable size of host egg. If they laid too many eggs in a host egg, the developing wasp larvae would compete with each other to the death for nutrients and space. If too few eggs were laid, portions of the host egg would decay, killing the wasp larvae.Which of the following conclusions can properly be drawn from the information above?

 。ˋ) The size of the smallest host egg that a wasp could theoretically parasitize can be determined from the wasp's egg-laying behavior.

 。˙) Host insects lack any effective defenses against the form of predation practiced by parasitic wasps.

 。–) Parasitic wasps learn from experience how many eggs to lay into the eggs of different host species.

 。―) Failure to lay enough eggs would lead to the death of the developing wasp larvae more quickly than would laying too many eggs.(A)

 。‥) Parasitic wasps use visual clues to calculate the size of a host egg.

  答案:

  1. A  2. B  3. D  4. D  5. B

  6. E  7. C  8. D  9. A  10.E

  11.B  12.D  13.A  14.C  15.E

  16.B  17.B  18.A  19.C  20.A

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