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2007年GMAT考试最新逻辑推理仿真试题训练八(2)

2007-11-02 15:59

  Questions 10-11 are based on the following.

  Partly because of bad weather, but also partly because some major pepper growers have switched to high-priced cocoa, world production of pepper has been running well below worldwide sales for three years. Pepper is consequently in relatively short supply. The price of pepper has soared in response: it now equals that of cocoa.

  10.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

 。ˋ) Pepper is a profitable crop only if it is grown on a large scale.
 。˙) World consumption of pepper has been unusually high for three years.
 。–) World production of pepper will return to previous levels once normal weather returns.
 。―) Surplus stocks of pepper have been reduced in the past three years.
 。‥) The profits that the growers of pepper have made in the past three years have been unprecedented.

  11.Some observers have concluded that the rise in the price of pepper means that the switch by some growers from pepper to cocoa left those growers no better off than if none of them had switched; this conclusion, however, is unwarranted because it can be inferred to be likely that

 。ˋ) those growers could not have foreseen how high the price of pepper would go
 。˙) the initial cost involved in switching from pepper to cocoa is substantial
 。–) supplies of pepper would not be as low as they are if those growers had not switched crops
 。―) cocoa crops are as susceptible to being reduced by bad weather as are pepper crops
 。‥) as more growers turn to growing cocoa, cocoa supplies will increase and the price of cocoa will fall precipitously

  12.Using computer techniques, researchers analyze layers of paint that lie buried beneath the surface layers of old paintings. They claim, for example, that additional mountainous scenery once appeared in Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, which was later painted over. Skeptics reply to these claims, however, that X-ray examinations of the Mona Lisa do not show hidden mountains.

  Which of the following, if true, would tend most to weaken the force of the skeptics' objections?

 。ˋ) There is no written or anecdotal record that Leonardo da Vinci ever painted over major areas of his Mona Lisa.
 。˙) Painters of da Vinci's time commonly created images of mountainous scenery in the backgrounds of portraits like the Mona Lisa.
 。–) No one knows for certain what parts of the Mona Lisa may have been painted by da Vinci's assistants rather than by da Vinci himself.
 。―) Infrared photography of the Mona Lisa has revealed no trace of hidden mountainous scenery.
 。‥) Analysis relying on X-rays only has the capacity to detect lead-based white pigments in layers of paint beneath a painting's surface layers.

  13.While Governor Verdant has been in office, the state's budget has increased by an average of 6 percent each year. While the previous governor was in office, the state's budget increased by an average of 11.5 percent each year. Obviously, the austere budgets during Governor Verdant's term have caused the slowdown in the growth in state spending.

  Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above?

 。ˋ) The rate of inflation in the state averaged 10 percent each year during the previous governor's term in office and 3 percent each year during Verdant's term.
 。˙) Both federal and state income tax rates have been lowered considerably during Verdant's term in office.
 。–) In each year of Verdant's term in office, the state's budget has shown some increase in spending over the previous year.
 。―) During Verdant's term in office, the state has either discontinued or begun to charge private citizens for numerous services that the state offered free to citizens during the previous governor's term.
 。‥) During the previous governor's term in office, the state introduced several so-called “austerity” budgets intended to reduce the growth in state spending.

  14.Federal agricultural programs aimed at benefiting one group whose livelihood depends on farming often end up harming another such group.

  Which of the following statements provides support for the claim above?

  I.An effort to help feed-grain producers resulted in higher prices for their crops, but the higher prices decreased the profits of livestock producers.

  II. In order to reduce crop surpluses and increase prices, growers of certain crops were paid to leave a portion of their land idle, but the reduction was not achieved because improvements in efficiency resulted in higher production on the land in use.

  III.Many farm workers were put out of work when a program meant to raise the price of grain provided grain growers with an incentive to reduce production by giving them surplus grain from government reserves.

 。ˋ) I, but not II and not III
 。˙) II, but not I and not III
 。–) I and III, but not II
 。―) II and III, but not I
 。‥) I, II and III

  15.  Technological education is worsening. People between eighteen and twenty-four, who are just emerging from their formal education, are more likely to be technologically illiterate than somewhat older adults. And yet, issues for public referenda will increasingly involve aspects of technology.

  Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above?

 。ˋ) If all young people are to make informed decisions on public referenda, many of them must learn more about technology.
 。˙) Thorough studies of technological issues and innovations should be made a required part of the public and private school curriculum.
 。–) It should be suggested that prospective voters attend applied science courses in order to acquire a minimal competency in technical matters.
 。―) If young people are not to be overly influenced by famous technocrats, they must increase their knowledge of pure science.
 。‥) On public referenda issues, young people tend to confuse real or probable technologies with impossible ideals.

  16.In a political system with only two major parties, the entrance of a third-party candidate into an election race damages the chances of only one of the two major candidates. The third-party candidate always attracts some of the voters who might otherwise have voted for one of the two major candidates, but not voters who support the other candidate. Since a third-party candidacy affects the two major candidates unequally, for reasons neither of them has any control over, the practice is unfair and should not be allowed.

  If the factual information in the passage above is true, which of the following can be most reliably inferred from it?

 。ˋ) If the political platform of the third party is a compromise position between that of the two major parties, the third party will draw its voters equally from the two major parties.
 。˙) If, before the emergence of a third party, voters were divided equally between the two major parties, neither of the major parties is likely to capture much more than one-half of the vote.
 。–) A third-party candidate will not capture the votes of new voters who have never voted for candidates of either of the two major parties.
 。―) The political stance of a third party will be more radical than that of either of the two major parties.
 。‥) The founders of a third party are likely to be a coalition consisting of former leaders of the two major parties.

  17.Companies considering new cost-cutting manufacturing processes often compare the projected results of making the investment against the alternative of not making the investment with costs, selling prices, and share of market remaining constant.

  Which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility, constitutes the most serious disadvantage for companies of using the method above for evaluating the financial benefit of new manufacturing processes?

 。ˋ) The costs of materials required by the new process might not be known with certainty.
 。˙) In several years interest rates might go down, reducing the interest costs of borrowing money to pay for the investment.
 。–) Some cost-cutting processes might require such expensive investments that there would be no net gain for many years, until the investment was paid for by savings in the manufacturing process.
 。―) Competitors that do invest in a new process might reduce their selling prices and thus take market share away from companies that do not.
 。‥) The period of year chosen for averaging out the cost of the investment might be somewhat longer or shorter, thus affecting the result.

  18.There are far fewer children available for adoption than there are people who want to adopt. Two million couples are currently waiting to adopt, but in 1982, the last year for which figures exist, there were only some 50,000 adoptions.

  Which of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the author's claim that there are far fewer children available for adoption than there are people who want to adopt?

 。ˋ) The number of couples waiting to adopt has increased significantly in the last decade.
 。˙) The number of adoptions in the current year is greater than the number of adoptions in any preceding year.
 。–) The number of adoptions in a year is approximately equal to the number of children available for adoption in that period.
 。―) People who seek to adopt children often go through a long process of interviews and investigation by adoption agencies
 。‥) People who seek to adopt children generally make very good parents.

  Questions 19-20 are based on the following.

  Archaeologists seeking the location of a legendary siege and destruction of a city are excavating in several possible places, including a middle and a lower layer of a large mound. The bottom of the middle layer contains some pieces of pottery of type 3, known to be from a later period than the time of the destruction of the city, but the lower layer does not.

  19.Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the evidence above?

 。ˋ) The lower layer contains the remains of the city where the siege took place.
 。˙) The legend confuses stories from two different historical periods.
 。–) The middle layer does not represent the period of the siege.
 。―) The siege lasted for a long time before the city was destroyed.
 。‥) The pottery of type 3 was imported to the city by traders.

  20.The force of the evidence cited above is most seriously weakened if which of the following is true?

 。ˋ) Gerbils, small animals long native to the area, dig large burrows into which objects can fall when the burrows collapse.
 。˙) Pottery of types 1 and 2, found in the lower level, was used in the cities from which, according to the legend, the besieging forces came.
 。–) Several pieces of stone from a lower-layer wall have been found incorporated into the remains of a building in the middle layer.
 。―) Both the middle and the lower layer show evidence of large-scale destruction of habitations by fire.
 。‥) Bronze ax heads of a type used at the time of the siege were found in the lower level of excavation.

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