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2007年GMAT考试最新逻辑推理仿真试题训练十四(3)

2007-11-02 16:33

  11.Certain messenger molecules fight damage to the lungs from noxious air by telling the muscle cells encircling the lungs' airways to contract. This partially seals off the lungs. An asthma attack occurs when the messenger molecules are activated unnecessarily, in response to harmless things like pollen or household dust.Which of the following, if true, points to the most serious flaw of a plan to develop a medication that would prevent asthma attacks by blocking receipt of any messages sent by the messenger molecules referred to above?

 。ˋ) Researchers do not yet know how the body produces the messenger molecules that trigger asthma attacks.
 。˙) Researchers do not yet know what makes one person's messenger molecules more easily activated than another's.
 。–) Such a medication would not become available for several years, because of long lead times in both development and manufacture.
 。―) Such a medication would be unable to distinguish between messages triggered by pollen and household dust and messages triggered by noxious air.
 。‥) Such a medication would be a preventative only and would be unable to alleviate an asthma attack once it had started.

  12.Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

 。ˋ) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
 。˙) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
 。–) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
 。―) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
 。‥) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.

  13.The recent decline in the value of the dollar was triggered by a prediction of slower economic growth in the coming year. But that prediction would not have adversely affected the dollar had it not been for the government's huge budget deficit, which must therefore be decreased to prevent future currency declines.Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion about how to prevent future currency declines?

 。ˋ) The government has made little attempt to reduce the budget deficit.
 。˙) The budget deficit has not caused a slowdown in economic growth.
 。–) The value of the dollar declined several times in the year prior to the recent prediction of slower economic growth.
 。―) Before there was a large budget deficit, predictions of slower economic growth frequently caused declines in the dollar's value.
 。‥) When there is a large budget deficit, other events in addition to predictions of slower economic growth sometimes trigger declines in currency value.

  14.Which of the following best completes the passage below?At a recent conference on environmental threats to the North Sea, most participating countries favored uniform controls on the quality of effluents, whether or not specific environmental damage could be attributed to a particular source of effluent. What must, of course, be shown, in order to avoid excessively restrictive controls, is that______

 。ˋ) any uniform controls that are adopted are likely to be implemented without delay
 。˙) any substance to be made subject to controls can actually cause environmental damage
 。–) the countries favoring uniform controls are those generating the largest quantities of effluents
 。―) all of any given pollutant that is to be controlled actually reaches the North Sea at present
 。‥) environmental damage already inflicted on the North Sea is reversible

  15.  Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

 。ˋ) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
 。˙) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
 。–) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
 。―) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
 。‥) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.

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